Laparoscopy, also known as minimally invasive surgery or keyhole surgery, is a surgical technique that enables doctors to visualize and perform various procedures within the abdominal or pelvic cavity using small incisions. The procedure involves inserting a thin, flexible tube called a laparoscope through a small incision in the abdominal wall. The laparoscope is equipped with a light source and a camera that allows the surgeon to view the internal organs on a monitor.

Laparoscopy offers several advantages over traditional open surgery. It requires smaller incisions, resulting in less scarring, reduced post-operative pain, and a faster recovery time. It also minimizes the risk of infection and complications, allows for shorter hospital stays, and provides better cosmetic outcomes.

During laparoscopy, specialized surgical instruments can be inserted through additional small incisions to perform various procedures, such as removing diseased organs or tissues, repairing hernias, treating endometriosis, or conducting biopsies. The surgeon can manipulate the instruments with precision while viewing the magnified images on the monitor.